Requirements specification - physical protection
In order to obtain a National Indemnity, an authorized requirement specification applies. The requirements apply to exhibition premises, transportation and storage. Approvals are valid for a maximum of three years. A new inspection must always be carried out after a major rebuild, new construction, a conversion or an extension.
Type of publication: Requirements specification
Valid from: 2018
Sender: The Insurance Department at Kammarkollegiet
Number of pages if printing: 16
1 Scope of the National Indemnity
The National Indemnity normally covers all damages “from nail to nail”, i.e. from the time an object is taken from the lender (from where it is being stored) to the time it is back in its original position or sent to another borrower. The indemnity covers all factors during the indemnity period. For example: objects are packed by the lender, objects are then transported to their destination (in one or several stages), objects may be stored between each stage of the transportation process, objects may also be stored at the borrower’s premises, objects are unpacked at the borrower’s premises, objects are on placed on display, objects are packaged for return to the lender, objects are transported to the lender and objects are unpacked by the lender.
2 Inspection and formal report
The Administrative Services Agency’s (Kammarkollegiet’s) inspector performs an inspection at the request of the Swedish National Heritage Board in accordance with the statement relating to the National Indemnity.
A so-called basic inspection is carried out by all museums/exhibitions that apply for a National Indemnity. The inspection follows Kammarkollegiet’s Inspection Report for the National Indemnity. The report contains some information corresponding to the “Facility Report”, which is used when objects are on loan between museums. And a check is made of the physical protection.
A statement on the survey results is submitted to the Swedish National Heritage Board. The statement may approve of or recommend the rejection of the National Indemnity. Approval of the National Indemnity could lead to conditions being made on the physical protection of an object/objects and certain administrative procedures must also be followed.
3 Procedure for a renewal application
Simpler processing procedures may apply when a renewal application is submitted from a museum/exhibition which, over the past three years, has been granted a National Indemnity and meets security requirements. The records used on pages 8–10 in the inspection report apply.
4 Procedure for exhibitions outside Sweden
In other countries there are often different types of threats than in Sweden, and other protection methods are applied where Swedish solutions cannot always be implemented or provide the desired effect. The main difference in the protection philosophy, with regard to what is customary in Sweden, is that the mechanical protection of the exhibition premises is often replaced by human resources. In other respects, equivalent requirements must apply, as in Sweden, in accordance with paragraph 5–9.
Note that security requirements apply throughout the entire process: transportation – storage – exhibition. An absolute minimum requirement is that someone is appointed as being responsible for the security of the exhibition in question.
The first step in processing the application for a National Indemnity outside Sweden is that Kammarkollegiet’s inspector submits an application with a Facility Report regarding the exhibition premises in question. A decision is then made regarding whether the application can continue to be processed, which may include gathering additionalinformation or conducting an on-site inspection. The opportunities to have recourse to Swedish representation abroad to gather information/perform an inspection must be taken advantage of.
5 Security requirements for exhibition premises
Kammarkollegiet’s security requirements are generally consistent with the recommendations, “Physical protection for major museums”. Kammarkollegiet’s security requirements may differ from the recommendations as the National Indemnity may affect limited parts of the premises.
Recommendations for physical protection comprise:
Mechanical burglary protection.
Teletechnical surveillance aids, which include the security of exhibition premises (perimeter protection and section protection) and the protection of objects (point protection).
Personal surveillance methods.
In addition to the recommendations, the inspection carried out by Kammarkollegiet also includes the control of the objects’ handling along with the exhibition premises’ climate and light conditions.
Protection requirements of the exhibition premises also include the museum’s/exhibition’s storage areas/storage procedures during transport to and from the exhibition.
5.1 Mechanical burglary protection
The minimum requirement for mechanical burglary protection is Protection class 3, in accordance with the Swedish Theft-Prevention Association’s standard SSF 200:5. In premises at ground level or accessible from the ledge, in addition to what is described in the SSF 200:5, the requirement for mechanical burglary protection applies, regardless of the height above ground level or standing area. Depending on the conditions, further protection may be required.
Mechanical burglary protection includes the following:
The enclosed area, i.e. walls, floors, ceilings, doors, openings for ventilation (windows etc), locks and fittings, doors, gates and other movable devices.
5.1.1 Area protection
In those cases where there is a security system already installed.
In addition to the Swedish Theft-Prevention Association’s regulations, the enclosed area at ground level must be protected against vehicles being used as a tool to force entry. This type of protection includes concrete barriers, steel girders, beams or bollards.
In addition to what is described in SSF 200:5, the minimum requirement for exterior doors is that they should be made to at least resistance class 5 according to the European standard SS-EN 1627.
In addition to what is described in SSF 200:5, windows must have laminated safety glass of a minimum requirement/class P8B, tested and approved according to EN 356. The protective glass must be fitted from the inside and be of a steel construction with a minimum slot depht 20mm. The glass should be pointwise being glued. Principle execution 11 in accordance with MTK Protection February 2007. Snap-on strips must be screwed down at a minimum of three points every metre.
5.2 Reinforcement of the mechanical protection
Walls, floors and ceilings and roofs that do not meet security requirements can be reinforced with steel sheeting in accordance with the Swedish Theft-Prevention Association’s rules.
Existing doors and windows should preferably be exchanged for the right products which provide the right degree of protection, but there may be reasons why existing products must be strengthened – both for practical and financial reasons. Reinforcement measures must always be approved by Kammarkollegiet’s inspector.
Doors can be strengthened with a wrought-iron gate or a roller shutter made to the required protection class. Wrought-iron gates or roller shutters should be installed on the inside of the premises first.
Windows, glazing partitions and other openings can be fitted with bars or shutters of the required protection class. Wrought-iron gates or roller shutters should be installed on the inside of the premises first.
Photo documentation of plated surfaces and hidden installations should be done ongoing during renovation/construction. Protocol from installation of security doors, wrought-iron gates, window portions must be displayed during inspection.
5.3 Teletechnical surveillance aids
5.3.1 Burglar alarm system
The burglar alarm must be installed to at least Alarm class 3, according to the Swedish Theft-Prevention Association’s standard SSF 130:8, with the addition that spaces smaller than 4m² inside the exhibition area must have section protection.
Perimeter protection should be designed so that it sounds an alarm before or in conjunction with the mechanical burglary protection being compromised. This means that, in addition to the requirements in SSF 130:8, all doors, windows, security grilles etc, in the enclosed area must be equipped with vibration detectors.
In addition to what is described in SSF 130:8, walls, floors and ceilings in buildings completed or renovated after 1 January 2011 must have an alarm fitted. Depending on the circumstances, this requirement may also be imposed on older buildings.
Sheet-metal reinforced enclosed areas should always be protected with vibratory or seismic detector alarms.
Burglar alarms and hold-up alarms must send an alarm signal to an security service centre or the police. The alarm transmitters must have a security grade 3–4 in accordance with SSF 136.
Power reserve must be available for a minimum of 60 hours in the event of a power failure.
Emergency doors must always be alarmed and a local audible alarm should sound at the door and to staff, for example staff in the reception area.
In addition to emergency protection of the premises, point protection (individual object alarms) may be required for the objects in the exhibition.
5.3.2 Hold-up alarm
A hold-up alarm may be located at stationary surveillance areas, usually the reception area, and a panic alarm may also be carried by exhibition security personnel. A hold-up alarm should also be displayed locally, alerting other members of staff.
5.3.3 Flood alarm
Flood detectors should be fitted to those areas that may be affected by flooding. A flood alarm should be transferred to a recipient for action. A flood alarm must also sound the alarm in the event of a power failure.
5.3.4 Climate alarm
An alarm will be sent from the climate control device and transferred to a recipient for action. An alarm will also be sent from the air-conditioning system during a power failure.
5.3.5 CCTV monitoring system
A CCTV monitoring system cannot act as a substitute for other parts of the security system, but in some cases it can act as a valuable tool in monitoring the surveillance work.
Kammarkollegiet’s inspector will determine whether a CCTV monitoring system is required and the scale of the system that is required.
5.4 Personal surveillance methods
An exhibition guard should always be present at exhibitions in order to watch over the objects and, if necessary, be ready to take action.
When the exhibition closes for the day, an exhibition guard must search through the premises to make sure nobody is remaining (hiding) in the premises; the exhibition guard must then lock the entrance doors and evacuation doors.
The number of guards depends on the individual circumstances. The Kammarkollegiet‘s inspector will recommend the number of guards required for each exhibition.
The exhibition guard must be trained for the purpose. The training should include surveillance instructions, action plans in the event of any incidents occurring and training in how to prevent/deal with fires.
An exhibition guard must have access to wireless communication with other guards and with the museum’s/exhibition’s reception desk.
5.5 Administrative routines
Prior to an inspection, Kammarkollegiet will check the administrative routines, where appropriate, to ensure they fulfil the National Heritage Board Recommendations which are detailed below:
5.5.1 Protection plan
Physical protection at the museum must be based on a protection plan, which incorporates threats, a risk analysis and an action strategy. The protection plan must be monitored and reviewed every year. The strategy should be based on a comprehensive view, which includes various measures to be taken in the buildings and on the premises, administrative rules and continuous training for the staff, which will together make up a satisfactory security system.
Access to a restricted area and inner areas must be strictly regulated and kept to a minimum. People who have access to a restricted area and inner areas must be known to the staff and employees at the museum/exhibition.
Access into a restricted area by employees and temporary visitors must take place in a controlled manner. Visitors to restricted areas must carry a numbered visitor badge. It is an advantage that employees also have a visible means of identification when on duty. Inner areas must be arranged so that the number of entrances is kept to a minimum (ideally there should only be one). All evacuation doors must be fitted with an alarm. Other openings must be sealed mechanically or fitted with an alarm. An inner area should not be located directly against an outer wall or facing out onto the street.
5.5.3 Receiving visitors
People who visit the museum/exhibition on a temporary basis to carry out maintenance and service tasks, along with visitors in general who will enter a restricted area and an inner area, must always be escorted by an employee who, in normal circumstances, has a right of access to these areas. The identity of these temporary visitors must be verified and they must carry a registered visitor badge which must be visible throughout their visit.
At least once every year, all employees must be informed about how the alarm system works and any important aspects relating to the system. They must also receive training in what to do in the event of an incident occurring. Objects in the museum/exhibition must be listed and random checks must be made regularly to ensure that the object/objects are in position.
5.5.5 Key routines
A register must be available listing all people that have keys/access cards to the premises. Plans must be available to ensure that:
Keys and access cards are kept in a safe manner.
Code combinations are changed at regular intervals.
Locks are changed if necessary. (During repair work, the lock should be temporarily removed and exchanged for a temporary look).
Giving out keys must be restricted. Protection Class 3 locks means that two people are required to lock and unlock a lock. Depending on the circumstances, it may be necessary that two people are given the authority.
Keys and documentation that impact on the security system must be stored at the highest level of protection at the museum/exhibition and accessibility must be restricted when the premises are closed. Keys and documentation stored in premises with a lower protection level should be placed in an alarmed safe that meets the requirements of SSF 3492 or equivalent.
5.6 Fire protection
5.6.1 Systematic fire protection work
In accordance with the Code SRVFS 2004:3 of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency, systematic fire protection work shall be carried out by all companies and organisations regardless of size and activity. The responsibility for the work is that of the management but all employees are important in this context, not least the safety supervisor, fire protection supervisor and the health and safety representative.
5.6.2 Written documentation of the fire protection
In accordance with the regulation SRVFS 2003:10 of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency, the following objects shall require submission of a written report to the municipality in question by 1st January 2005 at the latest:
Buildings or facilities of great cultural-historical value
Buildings that are historic buildings or church relics of cultural interest in accordance with the statute (1988:950) on cultural monuments etc., excepting those buildings that are exclusively used as housing.
Buildings that are historic buildings under the terms of the statute (2013:558) on national historic buildings etc.
National museums and other museums that are entitled to grants according to the statute (1996:1598) on government grants for regional cultural activities.
Meeting-place that is used by more than 150 persons.
5.6.3 Fire cell divisions
The exhibition premises must be divided up into fire cells to limit the spread of fire and fumes.
The exhibition premises must, as far as possible, be divided into separate fire cells with automatic fire doors which close in the event of a fire. Workshops, offices, archives, climate regulation rooms and electrical rooms must each form a separate fire cell. All the boundaries of the fire cells must have a minimum fire resistance class of EI60, other boundaries should preferably be smoke proof.
Section walls must be led through a raised floor and false ceiling. Lead-throughs/through connections etc., for cables, pipes, ventilation ducts etc., must be carried out in the same fire resistance class as the section walls.
Fire doors, fire hatches and similar must normally be closed. If they have to be open they must be equipped with an automatic closing device connected to the fire alarm system. Fire dampers must be fitted to the vents and in the ventilation openings required in the compartment wall. Fire dampers must close automatically – this action is controlled by the fire alarm system.
5.6.4 Fire alarm system
All premises must have an automatic fire alarm system. This includes concealed spaces such as ceilings and raised floors. The alarm system must comply with Rules for Automatic Fire Alarm SBF 110, published by the Swedish Fire Protection Association. Smoke detectors must be used unless other types are considered more appropriate. Fire dampers in air ducts and other openings, and fire doors with automatic closure, must be connected to the fire alarm system and must close automatically when the alarm goes off.
The automatic fire alarm system must be connected in a way that ensures an emergency callout by the emergency services.
5.6.5 Sprinkler installations
To raise the level of protection, sprinkler systems may be installed. The fire services’ response time and resources in relation to the risk of a rapid fire developing and the spread of fumes, with subsequent major secondary damage, must be put in relation to the damage caused by automatic fire-extinguishing system and must be carefully considered by the museum/exhibition. The needs and the possibilities of installing a sprinkler system should be conducted in a risk and impact assessment undertaken in consultation with fire experts.
5.6.6 Hand-held fire extinguishers
The required amount and type of fire extinguishers/hydrants should be available throughout the premises. Firefighting equipment must be checked with regard to quality and condition at least once a year, or as recommended by the fire authority.
5.6.7 Fire training
Both permanently employed staff as well as temporary workers, such as builders, must undergo fire training and participate in evacuation drills.
5.6.8 Action calendar
There shall be action calendars/instructions, disaster plans in case of loss occurrence. Apart from evacuation of visitors and personnel, possibilities of saving objects shall be studied and an evacuation plan for objects shall be prepared.
5.7 5.6 Protection of objects in an exhibition
A National Indemnity often means that extra protection of the objects in an exhibition must be provided, to protect against theft and damage. The requirements are based on the following classification of objects prepared by the National Heritage Board:
Level 5: High historic and economic value, cannot be replaced.
Level 4: Historic and economic value, cannot be replaced.
Level 3: Historic and some economic value, cannot be replaced.
Level 2: Historic and some economic value, not difficult to replace.
Level 1: Less historical value, can be replaced.
Level 0: For example, props and educational materials.
In practice this means that pictures must always be firmly attached to a wall, preferably at four points. For higher-value paintings these may have to be protected with laminated glass or placed in a security-alarmed display case.
Small objects must always be placed in a display case. Higher-value objects are often placed in a security-alarmed display case. Such display cases must be tested and approved in accordance with Kammarkollegiet’s standards for security-alarmed display cases. Levels 3, 4 and 5, above, correspond to the security-alarmed display cases at levels 3, 4 and 5.
Objects or display cases weighing less than 150 kg must be firmly secured.
Evacuation doors are a weak link during the exhibition’s opening hours. This must be taken into consideration when positioning and protecting objects. Evacuation doors must always be alarmed and a local audible alarm should sound at the door and to staff, for example staff in the reception area.
Level 5: High historic and economic value, cannot be replaced. Level 4: Historic and economic value, cannot be replaced. Level 3: Historic and some economic value, cannot be replaced. Level 2: Historic and some economic value, not difficult to replace. Level 1: Less historical value, can be replaced. Level 0: For example, props and educational materials.
6 Handling of objects
When the objects are being handled there may be certain risks, these risks relate to both physical damage and the risk of theft. Therefore, a report must be presented detailing the object’s route from when it arrives at the museum/exhibition to when it is positioned in the exhibition premises and vice versa.
7 Climate and light conditions
Requirements are often made from borrowers with regard to climate and light conditions which must be adhered to in order to avoid damage to objects. The basic rule is that temperature and humidity must be regularly recorded at all exhibitions.
Light intensity and UV radiation on the objects may often need to be regulated. During the inspection, the ability to satisfy the borrowers’ requirements must be investigated.
Transportation must be performed by Kammarkollegiet’s approved carrier. Its area of expertise will include vehicles, management, staffing, planning, reporting and accountability. If another transport company is hired each individual shipment must be inspected. In connection with the application for a National indemnity, a report must be submitted for the planned transport outlining: who will carry out the shipment, which security measures are taken and who is responsible for security. If the transport does not cover all objects directly from the borrower to the lender and back, a specification must be submitted detailing the constituent partial shipments, including any storage. The value of each partial shipment must be specified.
Special vehicles with protected and lockable storage areas, climate regulation equipment, an alarm, radio communications and a GPS positioning system are minimum requirements for vehicle shipments. The storage space enclosure must equate to Mechanical Protection class 3. There must be two members of staff in the vehicle. The shipment must be continuously monitored from the control centre. Additional requirements may be made for transportation outside Sweden, for the transportation of extremely high-value objects and when transportation takes place overnight. Normally an escort is required, in the form of an accompanying vehicle, which must be manned by the exhibition’s/museum’s own personnel, security guards or the police.
For air transportation, an approved transporter must be responsible for the entire journey.
Storage must be carried out in a warehouse which has been approved by Kammarkollegiet. Otherwise, each individual storage area must be inspected. In connection with the application for a National Indemnity, a report must be submitted for the planned storage area, outlining: where the storage areas are, what the values are, what security precautions will be taken and who will be responsible for security.
Security requirements for storage are the same as for the exhibition premises.